Nov 3rd

How did English become the world’s most widely spoken language?

By Zorge Sharav

Five hundred years ago, between five and seven million people spoke English, almost all of them living in the British Isles. Now, anywhere up to 1.8 billion people around the world speak English.

How did this happen? 

The growth of English has nothing to do with the structure of the language, or any inherent qualities, and everything to do with politics.

The British Empire

After developing for almost a millennium on the British Isles, English was taken around the world by the sailors, soldiers, pilgrims, traders and missionaries of the British Empire. By the time anything resembling a language policy was introduced, English had already reached all corners of the globe. 

For example, English-speaking puritans were not the only Europeans to arrive in North America: Spanish, French, Dutch and German were also widely spoken. All of the languages were reinforced by waves of immigration from Europe in the following centuries.

But in the process of designing a “United” States, the USA’s founders knew the importance of language for national identity. English was the majority language and had to be encouraged. As recently as the start of the 20th Century, several states banned the teaching of foreign languages in private schools and homes. The U.S. Supreme Court only struck down restrictions on private language education in 1923.

Even today, English is not the official language of the USA, but there is no question that it is the dominant language in practice.

And it wasn’t just America that said “hello” to English. At one point in the early twentieth century, the British Empire expanded across almost a quarter of the world’s surface, not including the USA. According to a popular saying, “the sun never set on the British Empire”.

Nowadays, the sun has set on the empire, but English remains an important language in every single former colony.

Gone but not forgotten

In most of the British Empire, the main goal was trading so fewer Britons actually settled. This explains why English did not come to dominate colonies in Asia and Africa, where it was the language of business, administration and education, but not the language of the people.

To this day, English has a key administrative role in these former colonies. For a long time, access to English meant access to education, whether in the mission schools in Africa or the first universities in India. This created an English-speaking elite in some of the world’s most populous countries, and elites are good at self-preservation.

Post-independence, many countries became officially multilingual for the first time, but the various groups needed a language for communication with each other and with other nations. Again, that was English. English is now the dominant or official language in 75 territories: a direct legacy of the British Empire.

In countries where large settler colonies were formed, such as Australia, Canada and the USA, native languages and cultures have been pushed to near-extinction by the presence of English.

It was not the first language of European colonialism; Portuguese and Dutch left the continent earlier. And, as recently as the 19th century, English wasn’t the world’s lingua franca (as the term suggests, French was the number one language of international communication). So something must have happened more recently to give the language its unique international status.

Without the rise of the USA in the 20th Century, the world’s language landscape would look very different.

Two world wars and the rise of the USA

While Europe was rebuilding in the years after 1945, the USA boomed. American businesses picked up where the British East India Company had left off centuries before, taking English around the world as a language of trade. The influence of American business, combined with the tradition of English left around the world by the British Empire, have made English the number one language of international trade in the 21st Century. All of the world’s top business schools now teach in English. 

English is now the most widely spoken foreign language in 19 of the 25 EU Member States where it is not an official language. The 6 states where English is not number one also show the importance of politics in language policy: Russian is the most widely spoken foreign language in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia; Croatian the most commonly spoken in Slovenia; and Czech the most widely spoken in Slovakia.

But the cultural legacy of the post-war decades is also very important to the growth of English as a world language.

As well as sending money across the Atlantic, the USA provided the soundtrack through rock and roll, jazz and, later, disco and hip hop. Hollywood movies became global sensations and American television series became cultural reference points. American culture was everywhere, radiating confidence and success; just the things for the world that had been ravaged by war.

It wasn’t just American music that brought English into the world’s discotheques and homes. British bands including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Queen, Pink Floyd, the Police or Led Zeppelin ensured that Britannia ruled the airwaves, if not the waves.

The hippy movement came from San Francisco and London. Music festivals including the Isle of Wight and Woodstock became iconic for a whole generation, whether English speakers or not.

This “soft power” continues today

English is “cool”

Advertisers pride themselves on riding the cultural zeitgeist; creating consumer desire through making products sexy. One of the ways they do this is through using English words. Check out Der Spiegel’s German examples, La Razon’s Spanish examples, Slate.fr’s French ones and La Repubblica’s Italian ones.

 

Many examples of English in advertising come from multinational companies, who wish to keep their message consistent across markets, but some examples are local firms looking for that elusive element of glamor that English can bring. Of course, this happens in English too: haute couture and Eau de Toilette sound much sexier untranslated.

Bands release their work in English to reach the largest possible audience. Film-makers too. This invisible pressure to produce creative works in English adds to the cultural momentum the language developed in the second half of the Twentieth Century.

The style-conscious language of extreme sports is English: snowboarders ollie, fakie and rodeo whether they are Canadian, Swiss or Japanese.

The word “cool” itself has been assimilated into various languages.

Science & Technology

The global power of the USA coincided with the birth of popular computing, and English is the language of the technological revolution and the internet. Consider a keyboard for example; they are designed for Latin characters, so speakers of Asian languages (particularly) use complicated techniques to enter words.

What happens inside the devices is also dominated by English. The USA remains the most innovative technological nation and, because of the language policy of the nation’s founders, English is the dominant language.

Pull not push

Apart from the efforts of some early colonizers , hundreds of years ago, the success of English has more to do with “pull” than “push”. People in British colonies who wanted an education would receive that education in English. Artists who want to reach the largest audience for their work can do that in English. If you want to trade internationally, you will need to speak English. And you don’t have to speak English to have a successful career, but it certainly helps.

Will English remain number one?

Some people suggest that English has become ubiquitous because it is “easy to learn” or especially flexible, but a glance backward suggests that this is irrelevant. Despite a devilishly complex case system, Latin was Europe’s most influential language for over a thousand years (and its descendants are still going strong). People learned Latin then for the same reasons they learn English now: to get ahead in life and have access to knowledge. Yet now Latin is only spoken by priests and scholars. 

Languages and borders change over time, but English is likely to remain the world’s number one language during our lifetimes.

Source: http://blog.esl-languages.com/blog/learn-languages/english/english-language-global-number-one/

Oct 19th

WHATSAPP VOICECHAT GROUP @+919592221768

By Gurlal .

WE LOVE ENGLISH

in E-√oicechat group we can share english :

√oice messages.

Audios.

Videos.

Images.

News articles.

Jokes.

Inspirational thoughts.

Our professional knowledge.

Stories,poems,novels,plays,essays(may be our own)

Grammar tips and word meanings.

Our doubts about any english topic.

Replies to our friends doubts.

Riddles,cross word puzzles,scramble etc,

GD topics like for ex -should alcohol be banned in the world? Why yes,Why no.

Web links to english learning communties.

Everything about english.

Please 

Be nice ,kind, and welcoming to one another.

If you cant speak nice,

Dont speak at all.

The use of vulgar language will not be tolerated.leave any religious /political/border issue/personal quarrer at home.

Are you interested.

You are welcome.

Please join using this link-

https://chat.whatsapp.com/ACzmiczt5lcD600VGaiRwu

 

 

 

Oct 4th

10 helpfull tips for research proposal

By Jerome Mancilla

Ten tips for writing your research proposal 

1.  Follow the instructions!

Read and conform to all instructions found on the council website. Make sure that your proposal fits the criteria of the competition.

2.  Break down your proposal into point form before writing your first draft.

Based on the total length of the proposal, decide whether you will have headings/subheadings and what they will be (e.g., Introduction, Background Material, Methodology, and so on).

These headings can be selected based on the advice given in the specific award instructions. For each section, lay out in point form what you will discuss.

3.  Know your audience.

Describe your research proposal in non-technical terms. Use clear, plain language and avoid jargon.

Make sure your proposal is free of typographic and grammatical errors.  

Remember that, at every level, adjudication committees are multi-disciplinary and will include researchers in fields other than your own.

Therefore, follow the KIS principle – Keep It Simple! Reviewers like it that way. 

4.  Make an impact in the first few sentences.

Reviewers are very busy people. You must grab their attention and excite them about your project from the very beginning. Make it easy for them to understand (and thus fund) your proposal.

Show how your research is innovative and valuable. Remember, too, to show your enthusiasm for your project—enthusiasm is contagious!

Organize your proposal so that it is tight, well-integrated, and makes a point, focused on a central question (e.g., “I am looking at this to show...”).

Depending on the discipline, a tight proposal is often best achieved by having a clear hypothesis or research objective and by structuring the research proposal in terms of an important problem to be solved or fascinating question to be answered. Make sure to include the ways in which you intend to approach the solution.

5.  Have a clear title.

It is important that the title of your project is understandable to the general public, reflects the goal of the study, and attracts interest.

6.  Emphasize multidisciplinary aspects of the proposal, if applicable.

 7.  Show that your research is feasible.

Demonstrate that you are competent to conduct the research and have chosen the best research or scholarly environment in which to achieve your goals.

8.  Clearly indicate how your research or scholarship will make a “contribution to knowledge” or address an important question in your field.

9.  Get the proposal reviewed and commented on by others.

Get feedback and edit. Then edit some more. And get more feedback. The more diverse opinion and criticism you receive on your proposal the better suited it will be for a multi-disciplinary audience.

10.  Remember that nothing is set in stone.

Your research proposal is not a binding document; it is a proposal. It is well understood by all concerned that the research you end up pursuing may be different from that in your proposal. 

Instead of treating your proposal as a final, binding document, think of it as a flexible way to plan an exciting (but feasible) project that you would like to pursue.

Oct 3rd

Tips to Improve English

By Harry White
Follwing Tips will be helpful to improve your English!
  1. Don't be afraid to make mistakes. ...
  2. Surround yourself in English. ...
  3. Practise every day. ...
  4. Tell your family and friends about your study plan. ...
  5. Practise the 4 core skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening.
Jun 17th

EVEN though/if/when/so

By sam re

Even though:  definite outcome

Even though the interview went bad, he got the job.

Even if: possible outcome

Even if he wins the lottery, he won't have enough money.

Even when: occasionally

Even when I talk slowly, she doesn't understand.

Even so: but/however

 

She is loud and unfriendly even so, I like her.

Dec 22nd

www.englishtopic.blog.ir

By s.mahdi aaaaaaaaaaaa

hello every one

because that i want to develop my english i make this blog 

it has many different and useful and very inteesting information about medicine in the main page and in the other page you can see the latest news and some information about the religous and the  real savior of the world . in the one page that its name is my text i share you some useful information about the life and the parts of it and some points about the learning and schdule.

i think it is useful for the others

see my blog and share your idea about it with me.

www.englishtopic.blog.ir

Nov 2nd

work as an au pair

By Rosy Vivv

 

i wonder if I'll be able to arrive to another country as au pair. I heard much different opinions about it and i have mixed fellings on that. I mean...im not sure if i am able to leave my home, family and friends and go alone. Does anyone of you were in similar situation? did you work as au pair ? Please give me some advice, it really means to me and ill be gratefull :)

Oct 30th

What is your opinion.

By s s

A girl in hand is better than two is bush...............

Feb 28th

the meaning of life...

By YUMM YUMM

quite often people ask what the meaning of life is,

maybe most of us at least once in our lives. i

had strangely never asked myself this question

until i heard or read it somewhere for the first time

when i was a little younger, and i can remember

that it got me thinking, and i realized that theres

a whole lot more to this question, maybe thats

the reason why its so well known. but i figured

out for myself that maybe this question cant just

be answered, suggesting that the answer would

apply to every single human being on earth,

its way to complex to be just that simple.

arguably one of the most discussed questions

ever, for real. but maybe since we are all so different

, we have different interests, characteristics etc,

its safe to say that every single one of us is unique,

maybe therefore it just cant be answered in general terms,

unless you reduce the extent of the answer

to the point where it can actually apply to everyone

and i mean EVERYone. and in my eyes that answer would

be the act of living itself, the mere act of living,

(or in other words the meaning of life is to LIVE), plain and simple

. the answere cant be more detailed without generalizing people.

and for those who arent satisfied with that answer yet,

i can gladly tell you that the rest of the answer is up to you,

 everyone has to find out the meaning of life for themselves, for their lives.

 

thanks for reading, in case you found any grammatical errors

or spelling mistakes throughout the text, pls let me know. TY

Nov 16th

Nothing is impossible

By Fresh Kid.

This is for anyone who believes: "Nothing is impossible, only if you Believe..."
-that all are possible if you believe in God and yourself
-that  until there's life, there's hope
-that anything is possible if you believe that it will really happen
-that whatever you believe is right and best for you will happen whatever it takes
-that anything will happen if you believe that you can make it happen.
 
IMPOSSIBLE is just a Big Word thrown around by Small Men who find it easier to live in the world they've been given, than to explore the power they have to change it. IMPOSSIBLE IS NOT A FACT.  IT'S AN OPINION. IMPOSSIBLE IT'S NOT A DECLARATION. IT'S A DARE. IMPOSSIBLE IS POTENTIAL . IMPOSSIBLE IS TEMPORARY.
IMPOSSIBLE IS NOTHING !
 

"I love those who yearn for the impossible."  
"I only want people around me who can do the impossible."

 

..........

 #Think Big and Fly High....The limit it's further than the sky...