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Five hundred years ago, between five and seven million people spoke English, almost all of them living in the British Isles. Now, anywhere up to 1.8 billion people around the world speak English.
How did this happen?
The growth of English has nothing to do with the structure of the language, or any inherent qualities, and everything to do with politics.
The British Empire
After developing for almost a millennium on the British Isles, English was taken around the world by the sailors, soldiers, pilgrims, traders and missionaries of the British Empire. By the time anything resembling a language policy was introduced, English had already reached all corners of the globe.
For example, English-speaking puritans were not the only Europeans to arrive in North America: Spanish, French, Dutch and German were also widely spoken. All of the languages were reinforced by waves of immigration from Europe in the following centuries.
But in the process of designing a “United” States, the USA’s founders knew the importance of language for national identity. English was the majority language and had to be encouraged. As recently as the start of the 20th Century, several states banned the teaching of foreign languages in private schools and homes. The U.S. Supreme Court only struck down restrictions on private language education in 1923.
Even today, English is not the official language of the USA, but there is no question that it is the dominant language in practice.
And it wasn’t just America that said “hello” to English. At one point in the early twentieth century, the British Empire expanded across almost a quarter of the world’s surface, not including the USA. According to a popular saying, “the sun never set on the British Empire”.
Nowadays, the sun has set on the empire, but English remains an important language in every single former colony.
Gone but not forgotten
In most of the British Empire, the main goal was trading so fewer Britons actually settled. This explains why English did not come to dominate colonies in Asia and Africa, where it was the language of business, administration and education, but not the language of the people.
To this day, English has a key administrative role in these former colonies. For a long time, access to English meant access to education, whether in the mission schools in Africa or the first universities in India. This created an English-speaking elite in some of the world’s most populous countries, and elites are good at self-preservation.
Post-independence, many countries became officially multilingual for the first time, but the various groups needed a language for communication with each other and with other nations. Again, that was English. English is now the dominant or official language in 75 territories: a direct legacy of the British Empire.
In countries where large settler colonies were formed, such as Australia, Canada and the USA, native languages and cultures have been pushed to near-extinction by the presence of English.
It was not the first language of European colonialism; Portuguese and Dutch left the continent earlier. And, as recently as the 19th century, English wasn’t the world’s lingua franca (as the term suggests, French was the number one language of international communication). So something must have happened more recently to give the language its unique international status.
Without the rise of the USA in the 20th Century, the world’s language landscape would look very different.
Two world wars and the rise of the USA
While Europe was rebuilding in the years after 1945, the USA boomed. American businesses picked up where the British East India Company had left off centuries before, taking English around the world as a language of trade. The influence of American business, combined with the tradition of English left around the world by the British Empire, have made English the number one language of international trade in the 21st Century. All of the world’s top business schools now teach in English.
English is now the most widely spoken foreign language in 19 of the 25 EU Member States where it is not an official language. The 6 states where English is not number one also show the importance of politics in language policy: Russian is the most widely spoken foreign language in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia; Croatian the most commonly spoken in Slovenia; and Czech the most widely spoken in Slovakia.
But the cultural legacy of the post-war decades is also very important to the growth of English as a world language.
As well as sending money across the Atlantic, the USA provided the soundtrack through rock and roll, jazz and, later, disco and hip hop. Hollywood movies became global sensations and American television series became cultural reference points. American culture was everywhere, radiating confidence and success; just the things for the world that had been ravaged by war.
It wasn’t just American music that brought English into the world’s discotheques and homes. British bands including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Queen, Pink Floyd, the Police or Led Zeppelin ensured that Britannia ruled the airwaves, if not the waves.
The hippy movement came from San Francisco and London. Music festivals including the Isle of Wight and Woodstock became iconic for a whole generation, whether English speakers or not.
This “soft power” continues today
English is “cool”
Advertisers pride themselves on riding the cultural zeitgeist; creating consumer desire through making products sexy. One of the ways they do this is through using English words. Check out Der Spiegel’s German examples, La Razon’s Spanish examples, Slate.fr’s French ones and La Repubblica’s Italian ones.
Many examples of English in advertising come from multinational companies, who wish to keep their message consistent across markets, but some examples are local firms looking for that elusive element of glamor that English can bring. Of course, this happens in English too: haute couture and Eau de Toilette sound much sexier untranslated.
Bands release their work in English to reach the largest possible audience. Film-makers too. This invisible pressure to produce creative works in English adds to the cultural momentum the language developed in the second half of the Twentieth Century.
The style-conscious language of extreme sports is English: snowboarders ollie, fakie and rodeo whether they are Canadian, Swiss or Japanese.
The word “cool” itself has been assimilated into various languages.
Science & Technology
The global power of the USA coincided with the birth of popular computing, and English is the language of the technological revolution and the internet. Consider a keyboard for example; they are designed for Latin characters, so speakers of Asian languages (particularly) use complicated techniques to enter words.
What happens inside the devices is also dominated by English. The USA remains the most innovative technological nation and, because of the language policy of the nation’s founders, English is the dominant language.
Pull not push
Apart from the efforts of some early colonizers , hundreds of years ago, the success of English has more to do with “pull” than “push”. People in British colonies who wanted an education would receive that education in English. Artists who want to reach the largest audience for their work can do that in English. If you want to trade internationally, you will need to speak English. And you don’t have to speak English to have a successful career, but it certainly helps.
Will English remain number one?
Some people suggest that English has become ubiquitous because it is “easy to learn” or especially flexible, but a glance backward suggests that this is irrelevant. Despite a devilishly complex case system, Latin was Europe’s most influential language for over a thousand years (and its descendants are still going strong). People learned Latin then for the same reasons they learn English now: to get ahead in life and have access to knowledge. Yet now Latin is only spoken by priests and scholars.
Languages and borders change over time, but English is likely to remain the world’s number one language during our lifetimes.
Ten tips for writing your research proposal
1. Follow the instructions!
Read and conform to all instructions found on the council website. Make sure that your proposal fits the criteria of the competition.
2. Break down your proposal into point form before writing your first draft.
Based on the total length of the proposal, decide whether you will have headings/subheadings and what they will be (e.g., Introduction, Background Material, Methodology, and so on).
These headings can be selected based on the advice given in the specific award instructions. For each section, lay out in point form what you will discuss.
3. Know your audience.
Describe your research proposal in non-technical terms. Use clear, plain language and avoid jargon.
Make sure your proposal is free of typographic and grammatical errors.
Remember that, at every level, adjudication committees are multi-disciplinary and will include researchers in fields other than your own.
Therefore, follow the KIS principle – Keep It Simple! Reviewers like it that way.
4. Make an impact in the first few sentences.
Reviewers are very busy people. You must grab their attention and excite them about your project from the very beginning. Make it easy for them to understand (and thus fund) your proposal.
Show how your research is innovative and valuable. Remember, too, to show your enthusiasm for your project—enthusiasm is contagious!
Organize your proposal so that it is tight, well-integrated, and makes a point, focused on a central question (e.g., “I am looking at this to show...”).
Depending on the discipline, a tight proposal is often best achieved by having a clear hypothesis or research objective and by structuring the research proposal in terms of an important problem to be solved or fascinating question to be answered. Make sure to include the ways in which you intend to approach the solution.
5. Have a clear title.
It is important that the title of your project is understandable to the general public, reflects the goal of the study, and attracts interest.
6. Emphasize multidisciplinary aspects of the proposal, if applicable.
7. Show that your research is feasible.
Demonstrate that you are competent to conduct the research and have chosen the best research or scholarly environment in which to achieve your goals.
8. Clearly indicate how your research or scholarship will make a “contribution to knowledge” or address an important question in your field.
9. Get the proposal reviewed and commented on by others.
Get feedback and edit. Then edit some more. And get more feedback. The more diverse opinion and criticism you receive on your proposal the better suited it will be for a multi-disciplinary audience.
10. Remember that nothing is set in stone.
Your research proposal is not a binding document; it is a proposal. It is well understood by all concerned that the research you end up pursuing may be different from that in your proposal.
Instead of treating your proposal as a final, binding document, think of it as a flexible way to plan an exciting (but feasible) project that you would like to pursue.
Reasons why learning English is so important.
- I agreed that English may not be the most spoken language in the world, but it is the official language in a large number of countries.It is estimated that almost 2 billion people in the world communicate in English language on daily basis
- English is the dominant business language and it has become almost a necessity for people to speak English if they are to enter a global workforce, research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English. Its importance in the global market place therefore cannot be understated, learning English really can change your life.
- Many of the world’s top films, books and music are published and produced in English. Therefore by learning English you will have access to a great wealth of entertainment and will be able to have a greater cultural understanding.
- Most of the content produced on the internet (50%) is in English. So knowing English will allow you access to an incredible amount of information which may not be otherwise available! Although learning English can be challenging and time consuming, we can see that it is also very valuable to learn and can create many opportunities.
- Technology helps to enhance our skills and wise guys utilize their precious time to gain education by using online education systems. Its become the most favorite technology around the world.
Definition of Articles
An article is a word used to modify a noun, which is a person, place, object, or idea. Technically, an article is an adjective, which is any word that modifies a noun. Usually adjectives modify nouns through description, but articles are used instead to point out or refer to nouns. There are two different types of articles that we use in writing and conversation to point out or refer to a noun or group of nouns: definite and indefinite articles.
Let's begin by looking at the definite article. This article is the word the, and it refers directly to a specific noun or groups of nouns. For example:
- the freckles on my face
- the alligator in the pond
- the breakfast burrito on my plate
Each noun or group of nouns being referred to - in these cases freckles, alligator, and breakfast burrito - is direct and specific.
Indefinite articles are the words a and an. Each of these articles is used to refer to a noun, but the noun being referred to is not a specific person, place, object, or idea. It can be any noun from a group of nouns. For example:
- a Mercedes from the car lot
- an event in history
In each case, the noun is not specific. The Mercedes could be any Mercedes car available for purchase, and the event could be any event in the history of the world.
Article Usage with Examples
Properly using a definite article is fairly straightforward, but it can be tricky when you are trying to figure out which indefinite article to use. The article choice depends on the sound at the beginning of the noun that is being modified. There is a quick and easy way to remember this.
If the noun that comes after the article begins with a vowel sound, the appropriate indefinite article to use is 'an.' A vowel sound is a sound that is created by any vowel in the English language: 'a,' 'e,' 'i,' 'o,' 'u,' and sometimes 'y' if it makes an 'e' or 'i' sound. For example:
- an advertisement on the radio (this noun begins with 'a,' which is a vowel)
I am Rahul
today i am talking about english. So friends english is not a
tipical language, english language is very simple language that
we can easily learn it but what do we do. We make it complicated
. and we think again and again without practice it. we think that
it is tipical and we give up . So what we have to do . We have to
take only single step. That is start learning it.
Even though: definite outcome
Even though the interview went bad, he got the job.
Even if: possible outcome
Even if he wins the lottery, he won't have enough money.
Even when: occasionally
Even when I talk slowly, she doesn't understand.
Even so: but/however
She is loud and unfriendly even so, I like her.
How to Learn English Well
English is an international language. However, learning a language is not an easy matter. But, it would be easier for us, if we try to improve the four skills of any language. The four skills are as: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Actually, there are two ways to acquire a language. One is called acquisition and the other is named learning. First, if a person wants to improve in listening skill, he needs to be a careful listener. He can also listen to the B.B.C radio news and can enjoy other programmes in English. Gradually, his listening skill will be developed. Secondly, speaking is the most important skill of all. To improve the skill, we must converse in English as much as possible. There is no other way out to master the skill but to practise speaking. We should not be much worried about our mistakes while speaking. Thirdly, reading is the third skill. We can be successful in the skill only by reading a great number of books in English. One can read short stories, English newspapers, English grammar books by the English and so on. Finally, writing is last essential language skill. To be good at writing, we must write regularly and for this, we can choose any topic. Although it is difficult to be a good writer, only rigorous practice may help us in this regard. Thus, we can both acquire and learn English well.
hello every one
because that i want to develop my english i make this blog
it has many different and useful and very inteesting information about medicine in the main page and in the other page you can see the latest news and some information about the religous and the real savior of the world . in the one page that its name is my text i share you some useful information about the life and the parts of it and some points about the learning and schdule.
i think it is useful for the others
see my blog and share your idea about it with me.